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樂施會:全球十大富豪疫情期間財富翻倍

樂施會:全球十大富豪疫情期間財富翻倍

David Meyer 2022-01-20
在新冠疫情期間,一些億萬富翁的財富增長格外明顯,即使在富豪圈里也很突出。

總部位于英國的慈善機構樂施會(Oxfam)最新發布了全球不平等報告,報告顯示,在新冠疫情期間,全球最富有的10個人的財富總和增長了一倍多,從7000億美元增加到了1.5萬億美元。報告指出,“如果把十大億萬富翁的財富換成美元大鈔堆成山,富翁們坐在鈔票山頂上,距離月球差不多只剩一半路。”

每年在達沃斯舉辦的世界經濟論壇(World Economic Forum)召開時,樂施會都會發布一份不平等報告。受新冠疫情影響,2022年達沃斯論壇延遲到1月17日開始。今年的報告對比了最富有億萬富翁的巨額收益與99%的人遭受的損失。

對比結果顯示,在新冠疫情期間,一些億萬富翁的財富增長格外明顯,即使在富豪圈里也很突出。特斯拉(Tesla)和SpaceX的首席執行官埃隆·馬斯克的財富增長了約1000%,目前約為2700億美元。谷歌(Google)的聯合創始人拉里·佩奇和謝爾蓋·布林的財富都增長了125%。

樂施會表示,總的來說,在新冠疫情持續的兩年里,全球2755位億萬富翁比過去14年繁榮時期更加富有。

迪斯尼家族的紀錄片導演、一直主張征收財富稅的阿比蓋爾·迪斯尼在報告前言中寫道:“新冠病毒剛開始爆發時,我和很多天真的人們認為,也許,只能說也許,之前赤裸裸暴露的極不公正和殘忍的結構可以喚醒人們,讓人有能量重新思考資源分配。然而現實正好相反。”

樂施會在研究中強調了南半球婦女和兒童的經濟困境,稱南半球婦女兒童財富加起來還比不上252名最富有男性的財產。報告指出:“收入最高的1%人群掌握的全球財富是收入最低的50%人群的近20倍。”報告還補充道:“即使收入最高的10個人總財富損失99.999%,每個人仍然比世界上99%的人更富有。”

樂施會的調查方法值得關注,因為近年來有些方法遭到了批評:最富有的1%人口和“最底層的50%人口”之間的比較是基于瑞士信貸(Credit Suisse)的數據,數據將債務考慮在內,意味著如果富裕的年輕人背負大量學生貸款,會視為相對貧窮。樂施會此前曾經為這種分析方法辯護,稱對解決不平等問題影響不大。

除此之外,超級富豪的統計數據來自《福布斯》億萬富豪排行榜(Forbes Billionaires List,本次全球不公平報告引用了2021年11月底的數據),并與2020年3月同一批人的財富進行了比較,同時考慮了通脹因素,而底層99%人群的財富狀況惡化的數據來自世界銀行(World Bank)。

樂施會敦促各國政府應對新冠疫情的同時,解決經濟戰略中的不平等問題,并采取以下措施:一次性的團結稅;對資本和財富征收累進稅;全民醫療和收入保障;為應對氣候危機提供資金;投資女性權利;以及放棄知識產權規則,幫助貧窮國家,為人民接種疫苗。

報告稱:“為適應21世紀,各國政府必須圍繞建設更平等社會制定經濟戰略。這意味著爭取經濟更平等,以及追求性別和種族平等,而且必須有明確的、有時限和可衡量的目標支撐。”(財富中文網)

譯者:馮豐

總部位于英國的慈善機構樂施會(Oxfam)最新發布了全球不平等報告,報告顯示,在新冠疫情期間,全球最富有的10個人的財富總和增長了一倍多,從7000億美元增加到了1.5萬億美元。報告指出,“如果把十大億萬富翁的財富換成美元大鈔堆成山,富翁們坐在鈔票山頂上,距離月球差不多只剩一半路。”

每年在達沃斯舉辦的世界經濟論壇(World Economic Forum)召開時,樂施會都會發布一份不平等報告。受新冠疫情影響,2022年達沃斯論壇延遲到1月17日開始。今年的報告對比了最富有億萬富翁的巨額收益與99%的人遭受的損失。

對比結果顯示,在新冠疫情期間,一些億萬富翁的財富增長格外明顯,即使在富豪圈里也很突出。特斯拉(Tesla)和SpaceX的首席執行官埃隆·馬斯克的財富增長了約1000%,目前約為2700億美元。谷歌(Google)的聯合創始人拉里·佩奇和謝爾蓋·布林的財富都增長了125%。

樂施會表示,總的來說,在新冠疫情持續的兩年里,全球2755位億萬富翁比過去14年繁榮時期更加富有。

迪斯尼家族的紀錄片導演、一直主張征收財富稅的阿比蓋爾·迪斯尼在報告前言中寫道:“新冠病毒剛開始爆發時,我和很多天真的人們認為,也許,只能說也許,之前赤裸裸暴露的極不公正和殘忍的結構可以喚醒人們,讓人有能量重新思考資源分配。然而現實正好相反。”

樂施會在研究中強調了南半球婦女和兒童的經濟困境,稱南半球婦女兒童財富加起來還比不上252名最富有男性的財產。報告指出:“收入最高的1%人群掌握的全球財富是收入最低的50%人群的近20倍。”報告還補充道:“即使收入最高的10個人總財富損失99.999%,每個人仍然比世界上99%的人更富有。”

樂施會的調查方法值得關注,因為近年來有些方法遭到了批評:最富有的1%人口和“最底層的50%人口”之間的比較是基于瑞士信貸(Credit Suisse)的數據,數據將債務考慮在內,意味著如果富裕的年輕人背負大量學生貸款,會視為相對貧窮。樂施會此前曾經為這種分析方法辯護,稱對解決不平等問題影響不大。

除此之外,超級富豪的統計數據來自《福布斯》億萬富豪排行榜(Forbes Billionaires List,本次全球不公平報告引用了2021年11月底的數據),并與2020年3月同一批人的財富進行了比較,同時考慮了通脹因素,而底層99%人群的財富狀況惡化的數據來自世界銀行(World Bank)。

樂施會敦促各國政府應對新冠疫情的同時,解決經濟戰略中的不平等問題,并采取以下措施:一次性的團結稅;對資本和財富征收累進稅;全民醫療和收入保障;為應對氣候危機提供資金;投資女性權利;以及放棄知識產權規則,幫助貧窮國家,為人民接種疫苗。

報告稱:“為適應21世紀,各國政府必須圍繞建設更平等社會制定經濟戰略。這意味著爭取經濟更平等,以及追求性別和種族平等,而且必須有明確的、有時限和可衡量的目標支撐。”(財富中文網)

譯者:馮豐

The world's richest 10 men have collectively seen their wealth more than double from $700 billion to $1.5 trillion during the pandemic, according to the latest inequality report from Oxfam, which notes that "if the top 10 billionaires sat on top of their combined wealth piled up in U.S. dollar bills, they would reach almost halfway to the moon."

It is by now traditional for the U.K.-based charity to issue an inequality report at the time of the World Economic Forum's Davos gathering—which began on January 17, virtually, thanks to COVID. This year's report contrasts the very richest billionaires' vast gains with the economic losses suffered by 99% of humanity.

Some billionaires have had a particularly good pandemic, even by the standards of their peers. The wealth of Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk increased by around 1,000%, to a current value of around $270 billion. Google co-founder Larry Page and Sergey Brin both enjoyed 125% boosts to their fortunes.

Overall, the world's 2,755 billionaires got richer during the nearly-two-year pandemic than they did in the last 14 (largely prosperous) years, Oxfam said.

"When Covid first hit I, and a lot of other naifs, thought that maybe, just maybe, the way our structures had been so starkly revealed as unjust and downright cruel would wake us up and give us new energy to think differently about the way resources are distributed," wrote Abigail Disney—a documentarian scion of the Disney family who has long advocated for wealth taxes—in the report's foreword. "In fact, the opposite has happened."

The study highlights the economic disadvantages of women and children in the global south, saying their collective wealth is less than that individually enjoyed by the richest 252 men. "The top 1% have captured nearly 20 times more of global wealth than the bottom 50% of humanity," the report states, adding that "if the 10 richest men lost 99.999% of their combined wealth, each of them would still be richer than 99% of the world."

It's important to note Oxfam's methodology here, because part of it has come in for criticism over the years: the comparison between the top 1% and the "bottom 50% of humanity" is based on Credit Suisse data that takes debt into account, meaning a well-heeled young individual with a pile of student debt is counted as being relatively poor. Oxfam has previously defended this way of looking at the situation, saying it makes very little difference to the point it is making about inequality.

Apart from that, the super-rich statistics come from the Forbes Billionaires List—in this case cited as at the end of last November, and compared with the same people's wealth in March 2020 while taking inflation into account—and the data about the bottom 99% being worse off comes from the World Bank.

Oxfam urged governments to address inequality in their economic strategies as they respond to the pandemic, with measures such as: one-off solidarity taxes; progressive taxes on capital and wealth; universal health care and income security; funding for addressing the climate crisis; investment in women's rights; and waiving intellectual property rules to help poor countries vaccinate their people.

"As an approach fit for the 21st century, governments must center their economic strategies around greater equality. This means far greater economic equality—alongside goals to pursue gender and racial equality—and it must be supported by explicit, timebound, and measurable milestones," the report said.

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